Up to modern times, Aswin Suri, Chairman of the Neuro-Endoceuticals, USA, notes that the inflammatory bowel disease is associated with several complications such as severe abdominal pain, malnutrition and other related consequences that often arises as a result of inflammatory. The disease is also characterized by relapsing and reemitting sequences of inflammation primary involving the gastrointestinal tract. Stintzing, Wissniowski, Lohwasser, Alinger, Neureiter, & Ocker (2011) argue that ECS is involved in many inflammatory disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Indeed, the distribution and expression of the cannabinoids receptors when combined with inflammatory cytokines will assist in the regulation in most of the Crohn’s disease cases.
On the other hand, CB1 receptors are largely distributed across the gastrointestinal tract, together with endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG.
Besides, CB2 receptors are also present, including on macrophage white blood cells (that do not contain CB1 receptors). In this case, CB1 receptors have been found to be upregulated in the vascular endothelium and micro fibroblast that is located in the cirrhotic livers, while CB2 receptors have been identified in inflammatory cells, and they tend to regulate pathophysiology of the inflammatory bowel disease.
Additionally, it has been discovered that patients with severe and complex inflammatory bowel disease and represented in referral bias, shows that cannabis sativa can be used to relieve of diarrhea and that cannabis may have a role in mediating inflammation (Ahmed, & Katz, 2016). In conclusion, endocannabinoids temporary on a CB2 result in weakening of inflammatory feedback. Also, cannabinoids have proinflammatory effects in which their immunomodulatory effect is based on the incidence of cannabis sativa consumption, the dose directed, the particular type of cannabinoid used, and the cells on which they are acting on.
Ahmed, W., & Katz, S. (2016). Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 12(11), 668–679.