THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF PTSD

The Role of Neuron Creation in Anxiety Disorders
According to Aswin Suri, anxiety and stress disorders are among the major prevalent of PTSD. Separately, the clinical manifestations of these disorders provide a spectrum of alterations. To some extent, the present original trauma effects and when untreated, the disease can develop a significant impairment in functioning, reduced quality of life, and enormous economic burden. Recent studies have examined the underlying literature review on the neural mechanism when regulating impaired pattern present in anxiety.
According to the note submitted by Rene Hen, Ph.D., of Columbia’s Department of Psychiatry and the NY Psychiatric Institute, suggest that the production of the neuron or the in the brain have assisted in the treatment of anxiety that is associated with PTSD (Duval et al., 2015).
They further note that the thalamus is an implicated sensory integration. In effect, through activation, the thalamus is associated with high degree of anxiety and disgust in blood-injury-injection phobia, as well as automatic arousal in snake phobia. In the treatment with paroxetine reduces the activation of the thalamus, therefore, tend to reduce anxiety. Additionally, in the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus that is that separate is among the two areas of the brain where neurogenesis takes place. Among the possible improving patterns separation is the addition in the number of adult-generated neurons, so they are better able to process information. Besides, there is enough evidence that shows that reduced hippocampal can be achieved through functional neuroimaging.
Moreover, recent studies provide that in the current models of PTSD, hypoactivity in frontal regions suggests a reduced potential for top-down regulation of fear and fear extinction (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011). The hippocampus provides information about the context of a situation, and the attenuated hippocampal response might be attributable to difficulties in identifying safe circumstances (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011). Besides, the above mentioned functional modalities in the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex, have shown possibilities in the patients with PTSD (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011).
Therefore, the studies as mentioned earlier researchers emphasize on the using better use of technological advancement in imaging. Finally, research should be conducted on patient with impairments in pattern-separation tasks and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

References

Holzschneider, K., & Mulert, C. (2011). Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13(4), 453–461.

Duval, E. R., Javanbakht, A., & Liberzon, I. (2015). Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 11, 115–126. http://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S48528

PTSD RISK FACTORS

Risk Factors
In the contemporary healthcare, anyone is susceptible to acquiring PTSD at any age. According to the research conducted by Otis, Marchand, and Courtois (2012) indicates the prevalence of PTSD persons are varying between 7 percent and 44 percent. The difference in the number is associated with the changes and variability observed in these studies. On the other hand, the above statistics are important in studying PTSD and the associated risk factors in different persons (Otis, Marchand, and Courtois, 2012). Furthermore, other research indicated that women are more likely to acquire PTSD than men, in the sense that gene and immune re the difference in both of them. Women are more likely to develop PTSD than men, and genes may make some people more likely to develop PTSD than others. Other risk factors that may be characterized by with PTSD include pre-traumatic factors that comprise of the characteristics of the individual that was present before the traumatic event.
Below are some of the factors that should be considered when it comes to the understanding of the risk factors for PTSD.

Why do some people develop PTSD and other people do not?

According to the emphasis relayed by Aswin Suri on the understanding of the PTSD, he posits that is significant to acknowledge that everyone can acquire PTSD regardless of the race, religion, or ethnicity. In this case, several risk factors might increase the rate at which a person might develop PTSD. Separately, scientific research indicates that other individuals cannot develop this mental disorder regardless of the nature of the risk factors.
Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals, also notes that several factors play vital role when it comes to the development of PTSD. A comprehensive list below is summarized by Aswin Suri and his colleagues, to understand both various risk and reliance factors that are connected to PTSD.
Risk Factors and Resilience Factors for PTSD
When it comes to the development of PTSD, below are the risk factors:
· Disasters caused by human error
· Victims of rape or sexual assaults
· Living through dangerous events or traumas
· Those diagnosed with life-threatening illness
· Combat veterans
· Dealing with extra stress after events such as loss of the loved one’s ones, pain of injury or loss of job or mortgage
· Little or no social support that makes individual feel isolated
Some of the resilient factors that may reduce PTSD include:
· Getting social support from people and other family friend will create happiness.
· Participating in event such as traumatic events
· Understanding and practicing the effectiveness in feeling good.
· Having positive though bout people opinion and learning how to get along.
· The essence of managing fear, depression, and anxiety will help the situation
· Learning and adopting strategies of forgetting the bad events that might have led to trauma events.
Additionally, following the research conducted by Iversen et al. (2008) understanding the factors which increase and reduces the risk of PTSD is very important when it comes to its management. In their findings, they realized that the primary PTSD symptoms are associated with lower ranks in office, being un married, having less education in the military camp, and history of childhood adversity or victimizations (Iversen et al., 2008). Therefore, taking into considerations of these factors, it is suggested that possible solution towards PTSD will emerge in the near future.

References
Iversen, A. C., Fear, N. T., Ehlers, A., Hughes, J. H., Hull, L., Earnshaw, M., & Hotopf, M. (2008). Risk factors for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder amongst United Kingdom Armed Forces personnel. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 511–522. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291708002778

Otis, C., Marchand, A., & Courtois, F. (2012). Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 18(3), 253–263. http://doi.org/10.1310/sci1803-253

POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Definition

PTSD is s psychiatric disorder that results from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events.

An event becomes traumatic when it is very life-threatening. The disease involves the exposure to trauma from single events that may cause death or serious injury. These events that my case PTSD include crimes, natural disasters, accidents, sexual violence, domestic violence, and other threats to the life. PTSD has complex psychobiological affects, which can damage a person’s daily life and be life threatening. In light of current events a sharp rise in patients with PTSD diagnosis is expected in the next decade (Iribarren et al. 2005).

Signs and Symptoms.

The most symptoms of PTSD are the re-experiencing symptoms. This includes the flashbacks in which the person acts or feels as if the events are re-happening, nightmares, repetitive and distressing intrusive images. In children, signs of hyper-arousal include hypervigilance of the threat, exaggerated startle responses, and difficulty in concentration and change in sleeping habits. Further symptoms of PTSD can lead to a considerable distress and can significantly interfere with social, educational and occupational functioning.

During diagnosis, adult must have presented the following signs one-month earlier:

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS & THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM

Aswin Suri posts that Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by repeated inflammatory episodes within the central nervous system. In additional to the relapsing-remitting neurological insults, resulting in the loss of function, a patient with MS always left the residue, troublesome with the symptoms and acute pain. Like most neurodegenerative disorders, MS gets worse with time as more neurons lose their sheaths and die. CB1 and CB2 receptors influence spasticity and tremors, two common symptoms of MS. Additionally, the contemporary advances in the cannabinoid biology are commencing to support these anecdotal observations. Following the recent clinical trials, cannabis sativa has the modalities of relieving pain, spasms, and spasticity of MS (Leussink, Verena et al., 2012).
The stimulation of the endocannabinoid with the patient with MS, either through the increase of the synthesis or inhibition of the endocannabinoids degradation offers the positive therapeutic potential of the cannabinoid system regulation of levels of the neurodegeneration that happens as a result of inflammatory insults. Further evidence is present in humans in which patient with active MS have a higher concentration of anandamide than those with silent from (Leussink, Verena et al., 2012). Additionally, in the regulation of MS, the combination of THC and CBD have been developed taking into consideration the synergistic and the reduction of the possible side effects. Double-blind, placebo-controlled attempts have indicated that THC and CBD therapeutically improve several aspects of MS, including pain, mobility factors, bladder problems, and spasticity (Leussink, Verena et al., 2012).
References
Leussink, V. I., Husseini, L., Warnke, C., Broussalis, E., Hartung, H.-P., & Kieseier, B. C. (2012). Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: the role of cannabinoids in treating spasticity. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, 5(5), 255–266. http://doi.org/10.1177/1756285612453972

INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Up to modern times, Aswin Suri, Chairman of the Neuro-Endoceuticals, USA, notes that the inflammatory bowel disease is associated with several complications such as severe abdominal pain, malnutrition and other related consequences that often arises as a result of inflammatory. The disease is also characterized by relapsing and reemitting sequences of inflammation primary involving the gastrointestinal tract. Stintzing, Wissniowski, Lohwasser, Alinger, Neureiter, & Ocker (2011) argue that ECS is involved in many inflammatory disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Indeed, the distribution and expression of the cannabinoids receptors when combined with inflammatory cytokines will assist in the regulation in most of the Crohn’s disease cases.
On the other hand, CB1 receptors are largely distributed across the gastrointestinal tract, together with endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG.
Besides, CB2 receptors are also present, including on macrophage white blood cells (that do not contain CB1 receptors). In this case, CB1 receptors have been found to be upregulated in the vascular endothelium and micro fibroblast that is located in the cirrhotic livers, while CB2 receptors have been identified in inflammatory cells, and they tend to regulate pathophysiology of the inflammatory bowel disease.
Additionally, it has been discovered that patients with severe and complex inflammatory bowel disease and represented in referral bias, shows that cannabis sativa can be used to relieve of diarrhea and that cannabis may have a role in mediating inflammation (Ahmed, & Katz, 2016). In conclusion, endocannabinoids temporary on a CB2 result in weakening of inflammatory feedback. Also, cannabinoids have proinflammatory effects in which their immunomodulatory effect is based on the incidence of cannabis sativa consumption, the dose directed, the particular type of cannabinoid used, and the cells on which they are acting on.

References

Ahmed, W., & Katz, S. (2016). Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 12(11), 668–679.

HOW MUCH CBD IS CONSIDERED THE RIGHT DOSE?

How much CBD is the Right Dose For Treatment

 Table 1: CBD Dosing Suggestion for Pain Relief

Condition Person Size (2-25lbs) Person Size (26-45lbs) Person Size (46-85lbs) Person Size (86-150lbs) Person Size (151-240lbs) Person Size (241 + lbs.)
Mild Range 4.5mg 6mg 9mg 12mg 18mg 22.5mg
Medium Range 6mg 9mg 12mg 15mg 22.5mg 30mg
Severe Range 9mg 12mg 15mg 18mg 27mg 45mg

 

Just like any other natural plant with a natural remedy and various functions, it is challenging to determine the exact amount of cannabidiol or CBD that a patient requires to treat a symptom. This is presented by Aswin Suri, Chairman of Neuro-Endoceuticals that “natural remedies such as cannabidiol have a distinct effect on everyone. Additionally, there is little scientific data research that discusses the exact dose for CBD treatment”. However, as argued by Aswin Suri, some patients can’t determine the correct dose or amount of CBD that is needed to treat their symptoms and can achieve consistent results by using ONLY quality CBD. According to Butterfield (2016), some of the factors that regulate or influence the amount of CBD that a patient will need include the quality of the cannabidiol itself and the manner in which it affects or reacts with the respective individual.

Other serving examples that have presented in other research include

  • General Health: 2.5-15mg of CBD by mouth daily
  • Chronic pain: 2.5-20 mg CBD by mouth for an average of 30 days
  • Epilepsy: 200-300 mg of CBD by mouth daily for up to 4.5 months
  • Sleep disorders: 40-160 mg CBD by mouth daily
  • Schizophrenia: 40-1,280 mg CBD by mouth daily for up to four weeks
  • Glaucoma: A single CBD dose of 20-40 mg by mouth daily

On the other hand, since hemp oil with CBD is currently not regulated by the FDA; although ancillary components will be in the very near future, CBD is legally sold as a dietary supplement rather than a medicine, the aspects of carrying out scientific research and coming up with official dosage guidelines is something in the very near future. However, Aswin Suri and Michael Membrino, Chairman and President of Neuro-Endoceuticals respectively, present that the existing research on the importance of CBD and its various medical application have suggested helpful information on choosing the right dosage for CBD treatment. Aswin Suri goes on to say, that using guidelines and instructions on the product together with understanding the personal needs will assist in developing or picking the right dosage for CBD treatments.

With the notion that hemp oil with CBD should be packed and sold according to the FDA terms and conditions, this helps the manufactures and processors indicate the nutritional level and guidelines which determines the amount of CBD available in the product. In this case, the fundamental nutrient level has a suggested serving size. However, every hemp oil with CBD is allowed to legally provide this kind of suggestion; yet it is not advisable to quickly follow the recommendation given to consumers. This is because Aswin Suri, Chairman of Neuro-Endoceuticals stresses on the fact that not all suggestions given by the manufacturer on the CBD bottle is a stable dosage for the CBD treatment. Nevertheless, both Aswin Suri and Michael Membrino suggest that the label recommendation provided by authorized CBD manufactures should provide you with an opportunity to work out how much CBD, in milligrams, the products contain. Be that as it may, the concern of how many milligrams one needs to take and how often to take will depend entirely on your given situation.

Separately, according to Project CBD (2016), cannabidiol or CBD is a non-intoxicating component that is originated from medical cannabis with greater therapeutic potential, ranging from neurodegenerative disorder to mental disorders. This has given CBD a buzz among scientists, health professionals, and medical marijuana patients who are using CBD-rich products to treat a broad range of conditions such as chronic pain, cancer, Crohn’s, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, PTSD, cardiovascular disease, anxiety, antibiotic-resistant infections, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and many others. Additionally, scientific research carried out in the United States and elsewhere are currently studying the effects of CBD on these medical condition’s and other ailments. In this case, most of the researchers and medical professionals have referred to CBD as a “promiscuous” compound because it confers therapeutic benefits in many different ways while tapping into how we function physiologically and psychologically on a serious level.

Consequently, extensive research that is connected with technological advancement and the greater importance of hemp oil with CBD have shown that CBD has strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-psychotic, anti-tumor forming, and overprotective qualities. Cannabidiol can change gene expression and remove beta-amyloid plaque which is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s from brain cells. In the above description, the most appropriate delivery system or the right dosage for CBD treatment is the one that provides an optimal dose for the desired duration with little to no side effects. Suggestively, Aswin Suri also notes that the time of onset and the duration of the effects vary depending on the method of the administration. Hemp oil with CBD can be taken orally (as edibles, lozenges, beverages, tinctures, and gel caps), or applied topically. Concentrated cannabis oil extracts can also be heated and inhaled with a vape pen. Inhalation is suitable for treating acute symptoms that require immediate attention; the effects can be felt within a couple minutes and typically last for a couple of hours.

Moreover, most of the CBD brands use “drops” to describe the serving sizes; for instance, one serving is equivalent to 10 drops. Interestingly, most consumers can find some indication on the packaging on what a serving is translated to regarding the milligrams CBD dosage. In this case, as presented in the table below, if one wants to consume a dose of 10 milligrams of CBD, you will find a suggestion on the package indicating that one serving is equal ten drops which is equivalent to 5 milligrams of CBD. In this case, one you will need to consume two serving 20 drops to the get the accurate dosage for CBD treatment you are looking for. It is noteworthy that most of the CBD dosage products settle for the serving size of 10 drops simply because it is simple and easier for consumers to understand to set their dosage.

Answering questions such as, “How much CBD oil should I take?” is hard to answer because every person is different. This goes to say, even if an individual reduces the dosage to a single condition treatment, that right dosage will always vary. However, Aswin Suri, Chairman of Neuro-Endoceutical holds that the effective dosage of CBD treatment will increase the body weight and the condition severity. The table below attempts to provide the right dose for CBD treatment, although it is not scientifically backed.

Recommendation provided on products is commonly referred to as a “starting point” because they only denote what has worked for their users. In this case, Aswin Suri advises that one needs to pay close attention to the feedback or the symptoms that remain after consuming a particular dosage.

Interestingly, there is not a severe danger for overdosing on CBD. Like any other natural existing remedies, adding extra spinach to your diet will mostly make you healthier. Based on the notion that CBD has little side effects, the fundamental threat that the team at Neuro-Endoceuticals has noted, is not to waste money on consuming more CBD than what your body can take in. On the other hand, as presented by Butterfield (2016) an individual’s sensitivity to CBD is a key factor in determining the appropriate ratio and dosage of CBD-rich medicine. Many people enjoy CBD prophylactically even if you are feeling well.

Other factors to consider when picking out the right dose for CBD treatment includes starting with a small size, paying attention to the symptom improvements, and consulting a medical professional. To start with, consuming CBD in small doses will help in determining how CBD reacts with an individual’s body. In this case, it is vital to understand how your body reacts and responds to CBD before increasing the dose. Secondly, paying attention to the serving size will help in being able to determine if you need a higher or lower dosage to match your weight. Finally, consulting a medical cannabidiol professional will allow a  doctor some day to prescribe and inform you how to use CBD and which dose might be beneficial.

Finally, breaking it down the right dose for CBD treatments, the range goes all the way from four milligrams to thirty milligrams per day. Some of the few outliers we have had, is that a user on a daily dose of 45mg is recommended for an acute condition; however, the vast majority of people realized their doses within the ranges provided in Table 1 above. On the other hand, the heaviest dose of CBD treatment is required by larger individuals; especially if they deal with severe conditions. As noted by Aswin Suri, Chairman of Neuro-Endoceuticals, a 200-pound patient with cancer; managing the side effects of chemotherapy, for instance, would likely consume 25-35 milligrams of CBD treatment on a daily basis.

Other serving examples that have presented in other research include

  • General Health: 2.5-15mg of CBD by mouth daily
  • Chronic pain: 2.5-20 mg CBD by mouth for an average of 30 days
  • Epilepsy: 200-300 mg of CBD by mouth daily for up to 4.5 months
  • Sleep disorders: 40-160 mg CBD by mouth daily
  • Schizophrenia: 40-1,280 mg CBD by mouth daily for up to four weeks
  • Glaucoma: A single CBD dose of 20-40 mg by mouth daily

In conclusion, an effective dosage can range from as little as a few milligrams of CBD enriched cannabis oil to a gram or more. Begin with a small dose of enriched CBD oil, especially if you have little or no experience with cannabis. Take a few small doses over the course of the day rather than one big dose. Use the same dose and ratio for several days. Observe the effects and if necessary adjust the rate or amount. Don’t overdo it. Medical Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Small doses of marijuana tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. Conversely, Aswin Suri, Chairman of Neuro-Endoceuticals provides an important note that when you first begin taking CBD, start off by taking the daily basis once in the morning and once at night. This double consumption is said to be useful in the sense that it allows for the CBD to build tolerance in the body.

References:

Project CBD. (2016). CBD USER’S MANUAL: A beginner’s Guide to cannabidiol and Cannabis Therapeutic.

EYE DISORDERS AND GLAUCOMA

In the past centuries, cannabis sativa was used to treat various eye diseases. Among them is Glaucoma that is characterized by abnormal high intraocular pressure (IOP) that can be advanced to blindness is not well diagnosed and treated. This makes glaucoma to be an irreversible blinding eye disease that generates progressive retinal ganglion cell (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016). In their research. They suggest the endocannabinoid system has pulled in a considerable attention as a possible way of treating glaucoma, commonly because of the observed IOP; hence reducing effects seen after administration of the exogenous cannabinoids (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016).
In this case, the presence of the ECS including CB receptors, endocannabinoids like anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in the anterior, posterior lobe of the eye and retina signals the CBS receptors. In effect, cannabinoids in the eye will reduce tear production, and regulate the IOP by decreasing it (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016).
Separately, the presence of the CB1 receptors that are expressed in the primary cells of the neural retina. In this case, the hypotensive effect of the cannabinoid on IOP is primarily affected by the presence of CB1 receptor. On the other hand, following the distribution of the endocannabinoids in the retina and considering the functions of the cannabinoids in modulating IOP in neuropsychology, it is quite clear to suggest that cannabis can be used in treating glaucoma.
Additionally, according to the research conducted by Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly (2016), Δ9-THC and WIN 55,212-2 activate CB1 and CB1, CB1 can lower the IOP attenuated in βAR knockout mice. This can be concluded that CB1 can stamp down the release of the norepinephrine that reduces the IOP. However, CB2 has little effect in regulating and controlling glaucoma in the sense that they are much sparser in activating IOP.

Looking at the long-term treatment of glaucoma, Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly (2016) argue that cannabinoids can be used in treating glaucoma and that in chronic, topical application 0.5 percent WIN 55,212-2, was identified in the study to be effective in reducing IOP within few weeks. Conversely, it is evident that CB1has positive characteristics to allosteric modulators that have the capacity of stimulating endocannabinoid-mediated CB1 showing that they lack behavioral side effects and suggest possible use in future treatment of glaucoma.

Other than glaucoma, Aswin Suri and his colleagues have indicated that ECS has been used to regulate other eye disorders. For instance, Cannabinoids are argued to guard against retinal neurotoxicity and have powerful anti-inflammatory and degenerative eye disease. Additionally, CB1 receptor agonist stimulates monoamine oxidase on the bovine retina that stamps down the dopamine release. Phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD have shown the potential to reduce the IOP and protect the retinal blood barrier in diabetic, correspondingly. In conclusion, heightening evidence now suggest that the modulation and correlation of ECS may show potential for management and diagnosis of eye diseases and glaucoma.

References
Cairns, E. A., Baldridge, W. H., & Kelly, M. E. M. (2016). The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Neural Plasticity, 2016, 9364091. http://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9364091

Dosing Suggestions

                                         Suggested Dosage

CBD dosing is all about the amount you are getting per serving of the remedy you utilize.

The ratio of CBD-to-THC of a particular strain of hemp/cannabis is good to know. But it doesn’t determine how many milligrams of CBD or THC you’re getting per serving. Plant extract, as well as pure CBD crystal is usually mixed in (diluted) with an oil or other “carrying ingredient.”

Different “CBD oil” or “CBD drops” products may also show a percentage of the plant extract infused in the oil. The percentage is good information, but the actual milligrams per serving is the most important to determine the outcome of improved health that you get.

More severe conditions such as cancer, PTSD, mental well-being, Parkinson’s, epilepsy etc. often require much larger doses. Just as valid, some conditions need less CBD for more effective relief. 1/5 tsp. = 1 milliliter. 1/8th teaspoon is about half that amount. Less may be more!

GENERIC SUGGESTED PROGRESSIVE DOSE FOR ANXIETY RELIEF

• Start by taking 10 to 30 mg. of CBD for the first 3 – 5 days during the day. If sleep is a much bigger issue for you, take it closer to bedtime. Many people say their sleep is improved, but notice how YOU feel, with either day or night time administration.

• If you feel much better, stay with that amount. Start low and go slow. This may be plenty for some people, not enough for others, too much for others. If you feel dizzy, high or too energized (some healthy people feel this – but not if you have depression) reduce the dose to just 4-10 drops only. Give it time to develop the full benefit.

• If you still want to feel more relief, take 25 to 50 mg. of CBD once-a-day for the next 3 – 5 days. If you are taking prescription medications or pain relievers, going slow is a good idea.

• If you feel much better, stay with that dose. Give it time and stay as consistent as possible. Don’t rush. Stick with that for another week or two. The experts suggest taking Sunshine Extract 2 hours apart from taking prescription medications.

• After 10 – 15 days, if you still want to feel better, take 25 to 50 mg. in the day and again in the evening (50 to 100 mg. per day) for the next week or two. You can adjust that to taking both doses in the daytime if daily anxiety is a bigger issue for you.

• If increasing your dose finds you feeling worse, reduce the dose. It’s not uncommon for there to be a “bell curve” effect where an optimum level is not a larger dose of CBD.

• After another 15 -30 days, if you still want to feel better, increase to an amount of 100 to 150 mg total per day. Stick with that dose for 2 – 4 weeks. Now it’s up to you. Going up to 250 mg per day may help in more severe cases, and it may not. This is the time to absolutely print out the clinical studies about cannabidiol and consult your doctor. Your doctor may not be interested. We feel the clinical studies are ESSENTIAL, not just important. Hopefully we can use the science to be in-sync with medical professionals.

Here’s a teaspoon-to-milliliter (volume of liquid) conversion. This shows the milligrams (amount of active ingredient) in a 50 mg./per serving example.

• 1/8 teaspoon = 0.62 ml. = 30.5 mg (milligram) dose of CBD in a 50 mg. per serving product.
• 1/5th teaspoon = 1 ml. = 50 mg. of CBD
• 1/4 teaspoon (1.23 ml.) = 61.5 mg. of CBD.
• 1/3 teaspoon (1.64 ml.) = 82 mg. of CBD.
* 1/2 teaspoon (2.46 ml.) = 125 mg. of CBD
• 1 teaspoon (5 ml) = 250 mg. of CBD when using a 50 mg./serving product.

Here are the doses that experts suggest for ADULTS, CANCER, and PEDIATRICS. For mental wellbeing, we’re focused on Dr. Daniele Piomelli’s study as a proven basis for success.

Everyone is an individual, so observe the results. Never suddenly reduce or increase any prescription medications, especially any SSRI (antidepressant) medications. Add-in a CBD remedy to your wellness routine. Cannabidiol’s benefits increase over a longer period of time.

The CBD Oil Review website suggests using everything from 2 – 1200 mg per day for DIFFERENT treatments. Plus there are a variety of CBD products available – both hemp and marijuana provide the same cannabidiol molecule, but it is critical to know the CBD-to-THC ratio (20:1 or greater) in any product. Find the smokable, tincture, oral/dermal sprays, lozenges etc. treatment that’s best for you.

CBD is clinically shown to be safe, and the claims made on this site are not evaluated by the FDA (because the antiquated U.S. Schedule I legal statutes prevent greater amounts of research). We only share examples and information, not medically perfected advice. It’s often smarter to “start low and go slow” when administering any dietary supplement.

CBD remedies extracted from hemp that contains only 0.3% THC are legal in the U.S. We absolutely do not advise or suggest obtaining any substances that are illegal in your local region.

CBD MAY HELP CREATE NEURONS, NEUROGENESIS

Neurogenesis Gives Birth To New Neurons In the Brain, Helps Relieve Stress
Research Suggests CBD’s Anxiety Relief Is Due To Neurogenesis
Neurogenesis is responsible for creating new neurons within the brain. These neurons process and carry information to the necessary destinations in the body, improving overall function. For some time, neurogenesis was believed to be limited to childhood, but evidence now shows that the brain’s production of new neurons continues well into adulthood.
A study published in The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology points to cannabidiol (CBD) as a therapeutically promising component on mental health ailments such as psychosis, anxiety and depression. Researchers studied the potential involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and CBD in combating anxiety. The findings of the study are promising.
There Are Many Benefits To The Process Of Neurogenesis
The production of new neurons in adulthood shows to correlate with depression. A number of antidepressants attribute their success to stimulating the process of neurogenesis. Furthermore, multiple studies have linked neurogenesis to levels of stress. Stress-relieving activities, such as exercising, have been found to increase the rate of neuron production. Animal observations have shown that this production decreases when under stress.
CBD May Help Create Neurons, Relieve Stress.
While researchers are still learning about neurogenesis, findings suggest that it could help regulate stress levels. Cannabis strains with high levels of CBD are typically known for relieving chronic pain, stress, anxiety, and a number of other conditions. These strains are typically Indica-dominant and some good examples would be: Cannatoni, Ghost Rider, and Frank Ocean.
The medicinal value of CBD has been under intense investigation as of late, but evidence supporting its benefits is being supported more and more every day. In the Neuropsychopharmacology study, a group of researchers from Brazil and Spain aimed to determine the involvement of neurogenesis in the effect of CBD, particularly anxiety relief.
Consistent 30 mg doses of CBD, two hours after a daily stressor, increased neuron production in adult wild mice.
Researchers first caused mice to be stressed. Two hours later, each day, researchers administered to the mice 30 mg of CBD and recorded the levels of neurogenesis. Their findings were that CBD spurred an increase in neuron production and battled the effects of chronic unpredictable stress. The findings of this study demonstrate one of the many benefits that stem from CBD.
Given that most of these uses are associated with brain function, it’s not surprising that CBD is also becoming a popular nootropic, particularly for improving anxiety & well-being.
CBD products are made from CBD-rich cannabis strains. In most cases, these strains contain very low THC levels (0.3% or less), which classifies them as hemp. Unlike medical marijuana, hemp products are legal in all states.

CBD For Addiction & Alcoholism

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